Mukogodo Forest: Making Strides Towards Management of Laikipia’s Biggest Forest Reserve The ILMAMUSI Mukogodo Community Forest Association (CFA)

Grace Korosian, Makurian CBO chairlady, addresses community members during Makurian community public participation in the review of the new constitution for the ILMAMUSI CFA

ILMAMUSI CFA was a pioneer in 2008 when it developed one of the first CFA constitutions for the newly recognized mandates of forest associations in Kenya.

Since that time, new Acts of government for natural resources management and governance have been developed, the most impactful being the Kenya Forest Service Act 2016.

Twelve years later, the CFA needs a new constitution to guide its organization and management.

It needs a new team of board members to guide development of a new management plan, to guide investments, and to take renewed responsibility for the future of the forest.  The CFA is an instrument of the national government for the operations and management of forest-based activities in national forest reserves.

With the leadership from the existing CFA board and assisted by key partners (who have been working closely with the CFA – NRT, LEWA, BORANA, and LWF), group ranch members have been working to draft a new constitution over the last six months. The constitutional review process must include community participation. Hence the Board held community discussions in the four group ranches responsible for Mukogodo Forest (Makurian, IIngwesi, Kurikuri and Lekurruki).

The new constitution marks a new beginning. There is renewed interest, hopes and expectations from the community towards the ILMAMUSI CFA as an instrument for the management and monitoring of forest resources.

A big part of the Forest’s future lies with different user groups. Their leaders have committed to rejuvenate the work of the different user groups and Community-Based Organizations.

The ILMAMUSI CFA Board is committed to work with the Community-Based Organizations to ensure there is improved capacity at the CBO level for leadership, governance and financial management. These CBOs are part of the ILMAMUSI CFA board, and are the focal members of a management committee which will provide advice to the CFA on priorities for each community area.

There is increased representation of women on the ILMAMUSI CFA Board and in the other committees (Management Committee, Security and Grazing Committee, Tourism and Enterprise Committee)

The final draft of the constitution includes the feedback from these community meetings, and will be presented at an ILMAMUSI CFA Special General Meeting for further comments and final endorsement.

The Food and Agriculture Organization  have provided financial support in support of this constitutional review, reform and public engagement. They will continue to support the operationalization of the reformed ILMAMUSI Community Forest Association and its constitution as part of the “Restoration of arid and semi-arid lands (ASAL) of Kenya through bio-enterprise development and other incentives under The Restoration Initiative”.

This initiative has been made possible courtesy of

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New Large Mammal for the Laikipia Plateau

On 14 January 2020, I photographed two adult male desert warthogs on the western boundary of Suyian Ranch, central north Laikipia County. The animals in my photographs are desert warthogs, which were confirmed by Yvonne de Jong, Jean-Pierre d’Huart, and Tom Butynski, two of them well-known for their ecology research in Laikipia.

This hog is a mouthful in Latin: (Phacochoerus aethiopicus)

This is the first record for desert warthog on the Laikipia Plateau, and only the second record for Laikipia County—the first record being obtained a few years ago at Tassia, in the extreme northeast part of Laikipia County.

Archie Voorspuy, the Manager of Suyian Ranch, photographed a third adult male desert warthog at the Suyian Ranch headquarters on 30th January, 2020.

At 1,890 meters (6,200 feet) above sea level, these records are about 200 meters higher than previously reported for desert warthog. These records also extend the southwestern limit of the known range of this species by roughly 30 km. With these records, Suyian Ranch becomes one of the few places where the ranges of desert warthog and common warthog are known to over-lap.

For those of your interested in more, please check out this paper on Desert Warthogs in Tsavo, by Yvonne and Co.

Anne Powys

March 2020

Suiyan Soul



Community Land Titling – What Does It Mean for Laikipia?

Over 60% of Kenya’s land mass is community land. Most of this land falls within the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya.

The 1968 Act legalized the ownership and occupation of land by a group of people, and provided the legal basis for the establishment of group ranches.

These group ranches have now become somewhat famous in conservation areas around national parks and reserves, such as Amboseli, Southern Rift, Maasai Mara, Tsavo, and Laikipia.

In Laikipia, about 25% of the total area of Laikipia is community land, with most of the community land operating under the Land (Group Representative) Act of 1968!

 They are an essential element of the Laikipia landscape and its land use; we have 13 group ranches.

The Community Land Act was signed into law on 31st August 2016 and it commenced operation on 21st September 2016.  The Act specifically provides for the recognition, protection, and registration of community land rights; management and administration of community land; and the role of county governments in relation to unregistered community land. To date, most community land titling has been slow to happen.

In Laikipia, the process of community land titling is supported by FAO. Only one of our group ranches has received its community land title since 2016 – IL Ngwesi.

In addition, the Act gives communities the opportunity to use and manage collectively land that is communally owned, by forming Community Assemblies and Community Land Management Committees.

Communities can then freely enter into agreements with investors to maximize returns from their land, and to all benefit more directly and collectively from these agreements/contracts.

Below is a summary of the process and requirements for the registration of community land in Kenya:

  • A community claiming an interest in or right over community land shall register its rights under the Land Registration Act. They must also have a plausible justification for why they are registering the community land as a collective, e.g. common ancestry, similar culture, etc.
  • The community land in Kenya shall vest in the Community. All adult members of this community must be listed during the registration process. This includes women, a first for the community land registration.
  • The community shall elect representatives to manage and administer the registered community land on behalf of the respective community.
  • Before submission of the community formation and registration documents to the registrar of societies, the local chief must authenticate these documents by applying an official stamp to the application documents and letter.
  • The elected community representatives must then present these authenticated documents at the Registrar of Societies. The Registrar of Societies then provides the community with a registration certificate after due diligence. This means the community is officially registered, but their interest in the land has not been documented.
  • The registered community identifies a surveyor, who is duly licensed to practice as a land surveyor. The surveyor provides an index map of the country and dials down to the specific area of land of interest on the official map of the area. The surveyor gets a general map of the area from Survey of Kenya, Folio Register (FR) which is represented by the FR number.
  • With the FR map, the Survey of Kenya indicates the reference points for the parcel, this guide the surveyor in placing new coordinates on the ground relative to the official control points. Once the points are marked, beacons are planted to mark the new points. A list of coordinates demarcating the boundaries is then established in relation to these points.
  • There is an official template called the deed plan that shows the reference point, the new points, and the resultant maps. The deed plan is taken to the land control board for scrutiny and verification. The board may invite any other interested parties or neighbors to authenticate a claim to ensure no claimants are ignored in the process.

Want to learn more about Community Land Titling? Check out this Facilitators Guide to the Kenyan Community Land Act here.

Keep Informed! Stay Engaged!

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Sharing Knowledge and Experience : Mutara and Suguroi WRUAs Visit a “Best Practice”

Lake Bogoria Basin WRUA Chair, Mr. Luka, sharing some of the best practices of his WRUA with the Mutara and Suguroi WRUA members during the March field visit

Mutara and Suguroi WRUAs both drain into the Mutara Conservation Area in Laikipia County. They share challenges including water scarcity, financial sustainability, and water use conflicts between upstream and downstream users, riparian degradation, and lack of adequate community support.

36 members of Mutara and Suguroi Water Resource User Associations (WRUAs) made a visit to Lake Bogoria Basin WRUA in the Rift Valley Basin Area. The “benchmarking” trip was organized as part of the FFI/OPC project implemented with funds from the Darwin Initiative in association with the Mount Kenya Ewaso Water Partnership (MKEWP). The trip highlighted matters of organization and management of water resources by the Bogoria Basin WRUA.

Although both WRUAs have developed the all-important tool to guide water infrastructure investment – their Sub Catchment Management Plans, they have not succeeded in fundraising to implement the plans.  Both lack an operational/administrative structure to run the day-to-day WRUA operations.

The WRUAs visited the Bogoria WRUA main office in Subukia where they learned about all the administrative and operational activities of the WRUA. Later, the Laikipia visited the common intake to learn about how the intake has succeeded in reducing water use conflicts between upstream and downstream water users.

A Testimonial from Nancy Karuri, Chairperson of the Mutara WRUA

“This field visit presents very interesting lessons to me and the other 17 WRUA members and stakeholders from Mutara sub catchment that joined this visit. We have seen the power of community mobilization and support to the WRUA, and the serious commitment of the Bogoria WRUA officials to ensure the WRUA is operational and accountable to its members. Going forward, I have the following take away points for our WRUA:

  1. Mutara WRUA will need to redefine its governance structure to ensure that there is more grassroot representation from members across the river section. The Bogoria WRUA has established 9 zones, each with organized leadership, ensuring that the WRUA has ears on every section of the ground and hence support from all quarters.
  2. We need to formulate a new strategy for developing water rationing plan. Mutara WRUA water rationing plan is developed by the WRUA management committee and shared to the water users to follow and comply. This requires increased monitoring and enforcement by the management committee to ensure success. The Bogoria WRUA water rationing plan is developed by water users within zones and hence water users own it and follow to ensure compliance. This is seen as a more successful approach and requires less monitoring and follow up from the WRUA management.
  3. It is of extreme urgency for Mutara to establish a running office to improve the WRUA operations and record keeping. The Bogoria WRUA shares its office with other institutions to reduce the overhead costs. Mutara WRUA will explore the same possibility and ensure that it has set up an office before the end of June.
  4. We are certainly going to accelerate our efforts towards construction of a common intake in Mutara to serve the same purpose as the Bogoria WRUA has done to help us ensure equitable water allocation”

This particular activity was courtesy of the Laikipia Water, Cattle and Wildlife programme that is supported by


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Credit: EPA-EFE

Swarming locusts are famous for their destructive potential. Currently, locust outbreaks in East Africa are threatening the livelihoods of hundreds of farmers and their families. For instance, a recent swarm in Kenya consumed more than 2,000 tons of food.

Despite the fact that pest management authorities are faced with a well-known, ancient plague, it seems that current measures are failing. The outbreak in East Africa started months ago and has, so far, spread into eight countries. How is this possible, considering all the technical advances that have been made over many years?

As a biologist who has specialized in insect research for the past 20 years, I believe current pest management regulations need to be revised. Currently, outbreaks are managed using chemical pesticides or an insect fungus (Metarhizium sp.). Neither is a good option.

Chemical (synthetic) pesticides may be harmful to the environment and humans because of their neurotoxic effects. They target an animal’s nervous system and, at higher concentrations, the nervous system of people handling the substance.

Insecticide fungi are applied as spores to kill the locusts. This can take a long period of time and requires certain climate conditions, so it often won’t work as expected. This fungus also has unwanted side-effects on species that aren’t being targeted, such as scarab beetles and termites.

My colleague and I found that linseed oil, combined with some essential oils, is highly effective in killing two of the most problematic locust species: Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria. Both species are very destructive and are responsible for most outbreaks in Africa. This botanical pesticide can be sprayed with conventional spraying devices and kills adult locusts within 24 hours.

Botanical pesticides have already proved successful against several insect pest species, but this is one of the first to target locust swarms effectively.

In our study we tested the toxicity of a linseed oil and bicarbonate emulsion against swarming locusts and looked for plant essential oils that would enhance its toxicity. The tests we did were encouraging. Our study shows how a botanical pesticide can be effective against locusts, and has properties that are less harmful to people and the environment. Mixing the oil components of this botanical pesticide is simple and the agricultural industry already produces these oils at large scale for various purposes.

Botanical solution

The emulsion we tested was made up of botanical pesticides known to be harmless to humans because of their historical use as cosmetics, spices or healing aids.

We combined the linseed emulsion with low concentrations of caraway, wintergreen and orange peel oils to develop a new formula that is effective against desert and migratory locust species after a single spray treatment. Within 24 hours, the formula killed between 80% of desert locusts and 100% of migratory locusts.

It worked because the combination of linseed oil and bicarbonate led to a quick hardening of this oil on the surface of insects. This suffocated them. We also believe that it affects the central nervous system and sensory information processing of locusts.

We tested it on other insects to see its impact on non-target species. We found that it was toxic to ladybird adults and is highly toxic to their larvae. It didn’t, however, affect the vitality of the mealworm beetle adults that we also tested it on. We aren’t sure why, but the mealworm beetles behaved normally, even eight days after spray treatment.

Because this botanical pesticide can have a negative effect on some non-target species, we propose that it should be sprayed on crowded locust colonies at their evening resting places and should not sprayed over huge areas. This botanical insecticide emulsion can also be mixed in the field, unlike other pesticides, so no laboratory equipment or protective clothing are needed.

Problems of extensive pesticide use

The agent of choice that’s being used in the current outbreak countries is an insecticide that relies on fungus spores to kill the locusts. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ordered four tons, for US$76 million, to combat the current outbreak in East Africa.

The fungus is called Metarhizium sp. and it forms spores inside locusts, with fatal consequences. It was created and tested during a 13-year French research programme called LUBILOSA. It is found to infest locusts between about seven and 14 days after single treatment and it needs high humidity and moderate temperatures to work effectively. To my knowledge, few field studies are available that demonstrate the effect of this fungus on adult locusts. Only one was performed in Nigeria in the LUBILOSA field studies.

Three major problems are associated with this fungus-based pesticide:

First of all, the LUBILOSA user handbook from 1999 instructs users to dissolve the spores in diesel or kerosene – also called “mineral oils”. But spraying large areas of land with this would have serious environmental consequences. Mineral oils are known to contain toxins and carcinogens that can affect human health. Another problem is that they don’t degrade easily and stay in the environment for a long period of time.

The second problem is that infestation is not fast enough to control large swarms and it needs specific environmental conditions to work. The fungus-based insecticide takes about 14 days to affect adult locusts. To produce spores, it needs high humidity and moderate temperatures, more than 20°C at night and less than 38°C during the day. In areas where locusts cause massive problems, these climate conditions are rarely found.

The third problem is that current Food and Agriculture Organization regulations favour a fungus over other pesticides. This regulation indirectly prevents the development and registration of novel, more effective botanical pesticides.

Regulatory change is therefore necessary. The regulation should be quickly revised to prevent further problems caused by massive locust outbreaks.

Manfred Hartbauer

Associate Professor, University of Graz

March 16, 2020

Taken from the publication “The Conversation”


Laikipia Smallholder Farmers : What’s Holding Them Back?

A member of Laiconar and EMU-SACCO practicing conservation agriculture in Laikipia north

Agriculture contributes significantly to Laikipia’s economy. It is also the largest employer, with smallholder farmers making up almost two-thirds of our agricultural sector. They also play an important role in aspects of sustainable development. This includes being a bulwark against hunger and poverty in rural areas.

Yet the majority still struggle to access affordable financial services to help them develop their farming operations and livelihoods.  Smallholder agriculture production frequently suffers from a series of negative consequences. For example, the financial inability to adopt modern technologies, or to access information in response to climate change, increases their vulnerability on a number of fronts and leads to food insecurity and malnutrition.

Laikipia County Natural Resources Network (LAICONAR) is a membership organization made up of 31 smallholder groups that cut across Laikipia County.  We provide linkages to agricultural extension services that include innovative production systems and integration of extremely poor and marginalized groups through farmers’ groups.

Our approach promotes financial inclusion – it’s critical to ensure all people have equal opportunities to access and use financial services. Key gaps exist in water financing and marketing.

Without access to basic financial services, our farmers descend into a  vicious cycle of income inequality, poverty and poor socioeconomic development.

This affects not only the smallholder farmers, but their children, households, communities and the economy.

Partnerships are important. Laiconar, County Governments, Mount Kenya Ewaso Water Partnership, Laikipia Farmers Association are among other private and non-governmental organizations that have a common interest in the future of smallholder agriculture.

These groups have come together under the Laikipia Forum and partner to implement and support strategies to bridge these gaps in smallholder agriculture.

The best example is through the Ewaso Maji Users Sacco (EMU Sacco), a savings and credit organization of smallholder farmers. The Sacco is the first of its own kind to finance water conservation and management linked to smallholder agriculture, thus creating a window for small farmers to access financing to address the key challenges affecting them.

EMU Sacco has engaged Laiconar to link its members with access to the following products. Water infrastructure loans which are cheapest at an 0.8 % reducing rate. This loan rates provides the farmer with the best opportunity to harvest water. The farmer is now able to access materials to harvest water and to install smart technologies, via the power of collective bargaining and purchasing, from companies like Vattan Plastics.

Short term agriculture loans are tailored towards horticulture and contract farming, allowing farmers to borrow horticulture loans and repay within the crop cycle.

Group loans from the Sacco allow the farmers to pool resources, co-guarantee members and also aggregate produce for marketing purposes. This provides opportunities for the least marginalized and the youth to engage in agriculture business.

Laiconar, along with EMU Sacco, is currently engaging its farmers to produce flowers for Kutoka Ardhini, a company that extracts essential oils in Nyeri County.

This is a unique approach that is both helping Laiconar and Emu Sacco grow its membership, while at the same empowering the smallholder farmer increase incomes and reduce water conflicts.

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Stories of Change : Community Voices on the Impact of the Laikipia Cattle, Water and Wildlife Project

A member of the Mutara community sharing his testimony on the impact of the Laikipia Cattle, Water and Wildlife Project.  programme in the area (Photo by Dylan Habil @OPC)

Lots of projects get “done”, but who is interested in impacts?

From 25th to 30th January 2020, Fauna and Flora International (FFI), Ol Pejeta Conservancy (OPC) & Laikipia Forum joined community groups within the Mutara and Suguroi river sub-catchments to learn about their experiences, perspectives and results from their participation in the Laikipia Cattle, Water and Wildlife Project. 

Mr. Kiprono Lekeiyo, a downstream water user and a member of the Mutara Water Resources Users Association shared that, as  part of the downstream community, he has suffered a lot from lack of water for domestic use and his livestock. Mr. Kiprono noted that water scarcity happens most during the dry seasons of January-March and July-September. He’s angry, and tells us that his woes are brought about by upstream communities that abstract all the available water from the river for irrigation purposes, leaving nothing for himself and members of his community.

This situation seems to be gradually changing since the beginning of the Laikipia Cattle, Water and Wildlife Project .

Lekeiyo confirms that through the Project’s advocacy efforts, Mutara WRUA is currently working closely  with upstream communities to regulate abstractions through a water rationing plan.

The water rationing plan develops a schedule for abstractors, ensuring that farmers are not abstracting all at the same time, and that they safeguard the environmental flows.

“So far, so good,” he says.

He gives a further example of how they did not experience a dry river  last year. “The upstream- downstream meetings are very important for us since we are able to negotiate water access rights with the upstream communities,” Kiprono concludes.

Kiprono’s sentiments are echoed by Mr. James Eleman, Senior Chief, Mutara Location. “We are seeing increased efforts by farmers to harvest and store rain water. Within Mutara sub catchment, I have a record of about 100 farmers who have installed water pans. This is good since it increases water storage and availability within the sub catchment. The water field days and WRUA campaign to increase water storage organized by the project have resulted in these positive efforts. We continue to urge farmers to construct more water pans as an alternative water source for the dry seasons.”

The project started in 2017 and ends in 2021. It is implemented by 3 partners – Fauna and Flora International, Ol Pejeta Conservancy and the Laikipia Forum.The Project is supported by the Darwin Initiative through UK Government funding.

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Biking and Hiking for Rhino Conservation

What makes for an appealing safari and fundraiser these days? It appears that a bike and hike combination, dedicated to conservation and outdoor adventure works wonders!

Between February 1st and 12th, 8 adventure clients from the USA joined the Adventure for Rhinos safari- a multi-sport adventure dedicated to rhino conservation in the Laikipia landscape. Starting at the Mount Kenya Safari Club, the adventurers biked through the mountain’s forest to Ol Pejeta Conservancy, where they met Fatu and Najin (the Northern White Rhinos) and Baraka (the blind black rhino).

They rode through Ol Pejeta with wildlife by their sides, but had to cut their bike ride short due to a huge herd of elephants. On Day 5, the adventurers biked rom Kicheche Camp to Jua Kali with Nanyuki’s local cycling team- Nanyuki Mambas and finally on to the Lolldaiga Hills. The last day of biking was an arduous one, with some serious elevation gain. The route went from Lolldaiga to Borana Conservancy, through Ole Naishu. After a “rest” day on Borana Conservancy, the adventurers climbed Mt. Kenya on the Timau route, all of them summiting Point Lenana.

Riding alongside giraffes on Lolldaiga was thrilling, walking through the savannah of Ol Pejeta listening to lions roar in the distance was gripping, having to pause mid bicycle ride to watch a herd of elephants was spellbinding and watching the sun set behind Batian and Nelion, Mt. Kenya’s tallest peaks held us all in awe.

The adventurers biked over 190km with over 2,900m of elevation in 5 days and then climbed Mt. Kenya, which was a hike of 46km with 2,545m of elevation. Congrats to all of them!

The ‘safari’ was an adventure, a journey and an opportunity to exhibit wildlife conservation in Laikipia, in particular rhino conservation. The safari took the adventurers through sanctuaries that host rhinos and conservancies that are hoping to host rhinos in the future. And to tie it all together, the guests climbed Mt. Kenya to get a bird’s eye perspective of the Laikipian landscape.

Adventure for Rhinos is connected with the Laikipia Forum’s efforts to raise funds and awareness for expanded rhino conservation in Laikipia. This effort is called the #RhinoRevivalFund. The Rhino Revival Fund was conceived more than four years ago to serve the conservation needs of our area. We continue to explore ways in which communities, government, and landowners can become more directly involved and successful with wildlife conservation. This fundraising trip has made almost $50,000!!

The Rhino Revival Fund is the foundation for a more ambitious grant funding mechanism for wildlife conservation in the greater Laikipia landscape. The Mazingira Conservation Fund will soon grow to USD$200,000 with a 4:1 match, and help support community-led efforts to engage in expanded conservation activities. You can learn more about the MCF here.

Adventure for Rhinos would like to acknowledge the following partners and sites for their contributions to this effort:

@africanascents @savagewilderness @tropicairkenya @onefortyeight_nairobi
@fairmontmtkenya @mkwc_ke @OlPejeta @kichechelaikipia @kicheche_safari_camps

@lolldaiga_hills @boranaconservancy @boranalodge @tonywild_ke

#AfricanAscents #KWS #Mt.KenyaNationalPark #NanyukiCyclingClub #adventure #adventuretourism #rhino #rhinoconservation #wildlifeconservation #mtnbiking #laikipia #kenya #magicalkenya #whyilovekenya

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Promoting Livelihoods in Laikipia Neighborhoods Through Cattle Fattening and Sale : The Oramat Lenaboisho Cooperative Society Story

Laikipia North is a pastoralist-populated landscape with marginal rains. Most of the soils are not as rich in nutrients as their black cotton cousins. The Maa-speaking people of this landscape have a strong and historical connection to these lands. But their traditional movements are curtailed by more modern land use and property boundaries. Climate change introduces more frequent and unexpected challenges making livestock management in marginal areas a real challenge. So, what’s next for pastoralism?

This is in part, answered by the birth of Oramat Lenaboisho Cooperative Society.

ORAMAT LENABOISHO COOPERATIVE SOCIETY is a community livestock enterprise based in Laikipia North sub-County. The primary purpose of the cooperative enterprise at present is cattle finishing/fattening to ensure better prices and better market access for Maasai cows. This effort started in 2016 in cooperation with Borana Conservancy.  The Cooperative aims to be a self-sustaining profitable livestock business, with finishing feedlots and modern slaughterhouse, and reliable market access. Improved livestock management, better and healthier breeds, and better rangelands are the goals.

Here’s how the Cooperative works – They secure steers and cull cows from their members, they fatten them using grass and feed supplements, provide medicine, and carefully monitor their condition and weights.  Fatter, healthier cows, managed exclusively for more up-scale meat markets, fetch better prices. Members are given the after-sale profits. Land lease agreements with Borana Conservancy for grass and medicines are also paid from after-sales profits.

The Cooperative currently draws members from 6 neighborhoods in the greater Borana area. 150 members are shareholders. Since 2016, more than 800 cows have been put through the Cooperative, with a gross income of more than 45M Kenya Shillings. And the Cooperative is poised for growth if they can do two things:

  1. Increase the amount of land used for fattening through additional land lease agreements, or outright land purchase.
  2. With their members, address rangelands restoration and better pasture management in their home areas.

This move has greatly awakened these community members to think outside the box and know that livestock are no longer needed reared just for prestige but for commercialization in order to reap maximum benefit. It also makes for better neighborhood relations and in time, better rangelands.

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Oramat Lenaboisho Cooperative Society is a member of the Laikipia Forum, and enjoys support and services from the Forum’s HQ in Nanyuki.



Engaging Youth on IWRM Integrated Water Resources Management : MKEWP Hosts University of Eldoret Students

The Mount Kenya Ewaso Water Partnership hosted students from the University of Eldoret, on the 6th of February 2020. During their visit, more than 100 students were given an intro to career issues in natural resources management, with a particular focus on IWRM.

The visit provided students with a chance to explore the effects of human activities on species, communities, and ecosystems. It was aimed to help develop their practical, interdisciplinary approaches to protect and restore our nature. The students were able to appreciate the role that every individual has to play in conservation and they were a particularly impressed by the new approach of EMU SACCO to help conserve and manage water at household levels.

The Mount Kenya Ewaso Water Partnership prides itself in being a game-changer in matters related to water conservation within the Ewaso Ng’iro North Catchment Area Basin. MKEWP is helping serve as a platform for discussion of IWRM issues, and more importantly a vehicle for actions that improve our water resources management. Students found their multi-stakeholder approach and membership to be exemplary!

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